Connective tissue

Cell Biology: 1. What is cell membrane made of? How does the composition (lipid, protein, cholesterol) of the membrane help with role that cell membrane plays? 2. What are organelles? 3. Can you identify organelles in the image below? Can you describe their functions? Tissues: 1. The inner lining of lungs and gut that come in contact with oxygen and food are examples of a. Epithelial tissue b. Connective tissue c. Muscle tissue d. Nerve tissue 2. Connective tissue is a solid tissue. Justify your answer a. True b. False 3.

Name 2 diseases associated with malfunctioning of connective tissue. a.b. 4. Discuss type and functions of muscle tissue, compare and contrast different ways muscle gets energy. 5. What are different components of neuron and their function? Can you name a disease state which affects nerve tissue? 6. How does message travel within a neuron, how does it travel from one neuron to another?

7. In the figure above label synapse, where is neurotransmitter released? 8. Name a few neurotransmitters. 9. What is the difference between curare and botox? Transport mechanism in the cells: 1. COMPARE/CONTRAST the kinds of transport Active or Passive What does it use to help?

Membrane proteins? Vesicles? Needs no help? Example of substances that use this kind of transport in cells DIFFUSION FACILITATED DIFFUSION PROTON PUMP 2. Name one disease associated with saturated transporter. a. 3. Can you list two diseases that can be treated by manipulating transporters? a.

b. How cells communicate: 1. Hormone Organ of Origin Function Excess Deficiency Thyroid Growth Hormone Insulin Glucagon Case A 50 year old housewife complains of progressive weight gain of 20 pounds in 1 year, fatigue, slight memory loss, slow speech, dry skin, constipation, and cold intolerance.

In terms of hormonal imbalalnce what do you think is wrong with her? Case Whena42yearoldman’surineisanalyzed,itisfoundthatheasglucoseinhisurine. Theglucosehas appeared in the urine because __________________________. You would expect that in this patient __________ hormone is either absent or not functioning. You would expect his blood glucose to be _______.

2. Neurotransmitter Function Excess Deficiency Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin GABA Cell reproduction and cell death: 1. What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis? Can you think of a disease that results from lack of apoptosis?

Drugs: 1. Discuss the differences and similarities among generic aspirin and Bayer® (Aspirin brand). 2. How do you define a drug? Pharmacology: 1. Define the following terms A. Pharmacokinetics: B. Pharmacodynamics: C. Clinical Pharmacology: D. Pharmacotherapeutics: E. Toxicology:

Routes of administration: Compare and contrast the onset of action among different routes, and at which site is the drug injected or administered. Route Onset of action Compared to oral Advantages Disadvantages Local/Systemic First Pass effect Oral IV IM SC Sublingual Rectal Vaginal Pharmacokinetics: 1. A.

After the Guy pops in a tablet for treating depression, the tablet disintegrates in the gut and then reaches the liver, which site does it go from here? Label the site where the drugs reaches as A, what is the process called? B. Once the drug has reached site A which 2 sites would it go to next?

Label them B and C, what is this process called? C. What happens after B and C, does the drug remain there forever, or is there any organ that changes the drug chemically? Label that organ D and name the process. D. Name two types of reactions that take place in this organ.

What is the end result of these reactions? Mention all possible end results. E. After the drug has been altered by site D, it is then transported to which organ? Label the organ E. What does do to the drug? Name the process.

2. Review exercise 1 posted on blackboard – understand what MEC, duration of action Tmax, Cmax, onset of action, MTC, bioequivalence 3. Describe Blood Brain barrier. What kind of drugs can cross the blood brain barrier and what kind of drugs can not cross the blood brain barrier? 4. Describe Blood Placenta barrier. What does the blood placenta barrier protect against? Pharmacodynamics: 1.

Define a receptor, an agonist and an antagonist. Between Drugs A and B which one is an agonist? Which one is an antagonist? 2. Name 3 agonists that are present in the body, what receptors do they bind to, what actions they perform? 3. Can you name an agonist used as a drug? 4. Can you name a class that acts as an antagonist, which natural agonist action do these block?

5. What are the factors that can lead to variation in drug response? 6. What is therapeutic index? Based on the graph provided below calculate the Therapeutic index, based on your calculations is this a safe drug to use?

Premarketing evaluation of drugs: 1. Describe the key features incorporated in the following acts: A. The Food and Drugs Act (1906) B. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938) C. The Durham Humphrey Act (1952).

D. Kefauver-Harris Amendment Act (1962) 2. Match the terms numbered in lower case with answers numbered in upper case (some of the choices in upper case will be associated with multiple choices from the lower case): a. Teratogenicity testing f. Phase IV trial results b. Carcinogenecity testing g. Class I recall c. Phase I trial results h. Class II recall d.

Phase II trial results i. Class III recall e. Phase III trial results A. NDA application would require which of the above data B. are obtained after the drug is already in the market C. Preclinical phase D. for errors that involve mislabeling E. IND application would require which of the above data F. for errors that can be fatal G. establish effectiveness, in addition to safety and effectiveness H. for errors that can cause serious adverse effects I. Clinical Phase J. establish overall efficacy in large number of patients K. establish dose range, side effects and safety in healthy volunteers.

Non prescription pain relievers: 1. In the pictures below, aspirin would be useful because of which of its effect? A. B. 2. Which enzyme is responsible for making good prostaglandins? 3. What are the functions of good prostaglandins? 4. What happens when you block good prostaglandins? 5. Which enzyme is responsible for making bad prostaglandins? 6. What are the functions of bad prostaglandins?

7. What happens when you block the bad prostaglandins? C. D. 8. In the images below, indicate 2 organs where the side effects of aspirin can be observed. Also name the side effects.

Explain why these side effects occur. 9. Is there an age group in which aspirin is contraindicated, why is it contraindicated in this age group? 10. Name 2 conditions in which aspirin is contraindicated. 11. What is the mechanism of action of Aspirin? 12. Compare Different formulations of aspirin their advantages and rate of onset. 13.

Compare and contrast acetaminophen with aspirin, list 3 disadvantages of acetaminophen over aspirin. List 3 advantages of acetaminophen over aspirin 14. What happens when Acetaminophen and Alcohol are take together? Common Cold and Cough:

1. What is responsible for common cold? How does the infection spread? 2. Pathogenesis of common cold symptoms. 3. Antihistamines – first and second generation antihistamines, how do they act? their names, side effects and the warning signs. 4. Decongestants – oral and topical decongestants, how do they act? their names, side effects, advantages.

5. Cough – cough reflex, types of cough, length of cough. 6. Antitussives – how do they act ? their names, side effects. List site of action of various antitussives. 7. Expectorants – how do they act? the name, side effects.

HPRS 2300 Homework Electronic Submission dates: Chapter and Page numbers refer to the Text Book ( Hitner and Nagle 6 E) PLEASE NOTE: Check the Lesson Plan for the due dates. ALL SUBMISSIONS ARE DUE BY THE DATE LISTED HW …

NSAIDs or Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs are a group of pharmacological agents which are involved in a wide range of functions. At present, NSAIDs are being used as analgesics, antipyretic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Their primary mechanism of action is …

The mechanisms actions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) To summarise, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs which have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties due to their mechanism and enzymes involved COX-1 and COX-2. However as well as being beneficial NSAIDs have …

Canadian Drug Legislation: Food and Drugs Act & regulation ? Health Canada ? Health Canada Products & Food branch ? Classification of therapeutics: Drugs (therapeutic products) Traditional drugs (chemical agents): Pills and tablets etc… Biologics & Genetic therapies Antibodies, Hormones …

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