Compare and cotrast digestive system

There are many muscles groups in the human body that have many differences and similarities to them. Such as the upper arm, thorax, and the abdominal wall. All muscles in the human body are divided into groups. Each group is responsible for a specific function. The upper arm group is important for your arm movement. Your thorax is important for your breathing, and your adnominal wall is important for protecting the abdominal viscera. The upper arm is part of the limb group which has muscles that can be grouped according to the function as flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, and medical and lateral rotators.

The different muscles of the upper arm is pectorals major, latissimus dorsi, Deltoid, Coracobrachialis, Supraspinatus, Teres minor, Teres major, Infraspinatus, and Subscapularist. The pectorals major and the Latissimus dorsi belong to the axial muscle. The origin to the pectorals major is clavicle sternum, the function to this muscle flexes the upper arm, and the origin to latissimus dorsi is in the vertebrae its function extends the upper arm. The rest of the muscles belong to the Scapular muscle. The origin of the deltoid is from the clavicle; its function abducts the upper arm.

The rest of the muscles origin belongs in the Scapula; Coracobrachialis function assists in flexion and medical rotation of arm. The teres minor and infraspinatus function rotates the arm outward. The muscles of the thorax are of critical importance in respiration. They attach to the ribs at different places and their fibers are oriented in different directions, the contraction of the external intercostal elevates and the internal intercostal depresses the ribs which is important in the breathing process.

During inspiration the dome shaped diaphragm flattens, increasing size and volume of the thoracic cavity, which leads air entering the lungs. The muscles of the thorax is the external intercostal which is found in the ribs, its function elevate ribs. The internal intercostal is also located in the ribs, its function depress ribs. The last muscle is the Diaphragm it’s located in the lower circumference of thorax, its function enlarges thorax causing inspiration. The muscles of the abdominal wall are arranged in 3 layers, which is the outer most layer, or external oblique, a middle layer, or internal oblique, and the inter most layer, or transversus abdominis.

With the fibers in each layer running in different directions, the result is a muscle that covers and supports the abdominal cavity and its internal organs. The origin of the external oblique and the internal oblique is in the ribs, the function of these two muscles is compressing the abdomen. The origin of transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis is from the pelvis, the function is the same as external oblique. The origin of the quadratus lumborum is from the iliac crest, the function depresses the last rib. Murguia2 The differences between these muscles are that there all located in different locations in the body.

The upper arm muscle is located in the upper part of the body, the thorax and the abdominal wall is located in the middle part of the body. The upper arm muscles allow you to move your arms a particular ways. Whereas the thorax and the abdominal wall is involved with helping your breathing. The similarities of the muscles is that there all located in the human body and have important functions in them that helps with who we are today. Muscle contraction occurs when the actin and myosin filaments slide past each other in a mechanism called the cross bridge cycle. Each cross bridge cycle involves five steps.

First, myosin is in its high energy state, meaning myosin head is bound to ADP and a phosphate group. In this state, myosin has high affinity for actin and the head binds to an adjacent actin triggers a release of the phosphate, and the myosin pivots towards the middle of the sarcomere, pulling the actin filament with it. And the end of the power stroke, ADP is released and the myosin molecule enters a low energy state. The third step is rigor. During this stage, the low energy myosin and actin are tightly bound together until the fourth step, the unbinding of the two molecules. A new

ATP molecule enters and binds to the myosin head. This triggers a conformational change in myosin, allowing it to detach from actin. The final step is the coking of the myosin head. After ATP binds to myosin, it splits into ADP and phosphate. This allows the molecule to return to its energy state, and the cross bridge cycle can repeat itself. The human skeletal system serves six major functions which are support, protection, movement, mineral homeostasis, blood production, and storage. These major functions are important because they help your heart, muscles, and protection.

Movement is a major function for both skeletal system and muscular system; it involves moving your muscles and bones. The protection surrounds soft tissue, ribs, and sternum protects the heart, lungs, and brain which are similar to posture. Blood cell protection produces red blood cells and mineral homeostasis stores calcium and phosphorus minerals are released into the blood when needed which is similar to heat production that cause blood flow. Without these major functions you wouldn’t be alive today. The skeletal system is one of the main parts of our bodies. Without our skeletal systems we wouldn’t be able to stand, move, or live.

Our skeletal system is one of the most important parts of our bodies with 206 bones in the adult body while there are 300 in a baby. However the skeletal system is connected to many bones that protects and gives are body many functions. The upper arm is only connected to one bone which is the humerus. The humorous is the largest bone in the arm and the only bone in the arm, the upper arm manipulates at the shoulder and the fore arm at the elbow is anchored to the humorous. The muscles of the thorax are connected to two bones which is the ribs and the lower circumference of thorax, the ribs are the long curved bones which form the cage.

In most vertebras, ribs surround the chest, enabling the lungs to expand and facilitate breathing by expanding the chest captivity. The muscles of the abdominal wall are connected to 5 bones which are ossacoxae, ribs, linea Alba, pubic bone, and sternum. The sternum or breast bone is along flat boney plate shape like a capital “T” located anterior to the Murguia3 heart in the anterior of the thorax, it connects to the ribs bones via cartilage forming the anterior section of the rib cage with them. The compact bone is the outer bone of the cancellous and the compact is the more dense than the cancellous.

The compact bone is also called cortical bone; compact bone is a dense bone in which the boney matrix is solidly filled with organic ground substance and in organic salts, leaving tiny spaces that contain osteocytes or bone cells. Cancellous bone is called trabecular or spongy bone; light, porous bone enclosing numerous large spaces that give a honey combed or spongy appearance. Both bones have two types of osteon tissues, the osteon tissues has 5 parts. The two main tissues in both bones are lamella, lacunae, canaliculi, harversian canals, and Volkmann canals.

Lacunae are space where osteocytes are located and lamella is concentric cylindrical layers of calcified matrix. The canaliculi is ultra-small canals branching off of lacunae, eventually connecting to harversian canals and the harversian canals are in the center of canal of each osteon; contains blood vessels and nerves. The Volkmann canals transverse canals that connect to harversian canals. However the compact bone makes up 80 percent of the human skeleton, the remainder is cancellous bone which has a sponge like appearance with numerous large spaces and is found in the marrow space of bone.

Both types are found in most bones, compact bone forms a shell around cancellous bone and is the primary compact of the long bones of the arm and leg and other bones. The compact bone contains many cylinder shaped structural units called osteons or harversian systems. Living bone cells in these units are literally cemented together to constitute the structural frame work of compact bone. The four types of structures make up each osteon or harversian system: lameliac, lacunae, canaliculi, and a harversian canal.

The cancellous bone differs in microscopic structure from compact bone is highly organized osteon or harversian system. There are no osteons in the cancellous bone; it consists of needle like bony spicules called trabeculae which bone cells are found. The bony spicules and actually arranged along lines of stress and their orientation will therefore differ between individual bones according to the nature and magnitude of the applied load. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue in the cavities of bone and is the blood cell factory. Serious diseases of the bone marrow such as leukemia, aplastic anemia and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone, tend to upset the making of blood cells.

The two types of bone marrow are “red marrow” and “yellow marrow”. For infants and children virtually all of the bones contain red marrow, and individual age red marrow is gradually replaced by yellow marrow. However adults still contain red marrow in the ribs, bodies of the vertebrae and the ends of the humorous in the upper arm, the pelvis and the femur, or thigh bone. Yellow marrow in an adult can alter to become red marrow.

Bone cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes talk to each otherthrou ghout adult life to maintain bone integrity. Bone cells communicate to regulate the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. Murguia4 Bone cancer is a disease that occurs on or inside a bone. Bone cancer involves a tumor filled with abnormal cells that will occasionally appear on the exterior of the bone. Similar to other types of cancer, bone cancer can be life threatening. There are five different types of bone cancer that can affect people from ages 10-60 years old. Bone cancer can occur in any bone in the body from the legs to the head. Symptoms of bone cancer are not always obvious.

Most of the time, pain is the most apparent symptom. When recognizing symptoms at an early stage, doctors can complete testing and supply treatment to the patient. Treatment for bone cancer usually begins with surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Because of the need to kill all of the abnormal cells that are growing on or inside the bone, treatment for bone cancer can be very powerful. In most cases, treatment is very successful. Before starting cancer treatment, many patients rely on statistics for a survival rate, but statistics are simply averages.

Bone cancer can sometimes be hard to detect. Symptoms of bone cancer can develop very slowly if at all. But Medicine Net on line states that the most common symptom of bone cancer is pain. One will develop swelling or tenderness in the affected area. Sometimes, a slightly visible lump may be felt through the skin. Bone cancer can also interfere with body movements like walking or hiking. Broken bones can also result from bone cancer. In one case, a victim of bone cancer recently started seeing symptoms of bone cancer. She developed a strong pain in her knee joint that enabled her to walk.

The victim experienced a large amount of swelling around the joint, the patient found that she had a fracture and a cancerous tumor in her knee. Even though the above symptoms can also lead to other injuries or diseases besides bone cancer, it is strongly recommended that one should consult a physician if in doubt. When diagnosing bone cancer, a doctor must first complete some tests. According to a summary of tests and procedures by Medicine Net on line, a doctor will first ask about a patient’s personal and family medical history in order to find out if there is any history of cancer in the family.

Next, the doctor will order blood tests and x-rays. The exact size, shape, and location of a bone tumor can be seen through an x-ray. Then, a CAT scan will be completed to show whether the cancer has begun to spread to other parts of the body. A CAT scan will give detailed pictures of the cross section of the body. There are also similar tests like an MRI and an Angiogram, but a biopsy is the ultimate test that will make sure that cancer is present in the body. The many different tests of bone cancer are very critical to the outcome of the disease. The tests are used for staging the bone cancer.

There are three types of treatment for bone cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The treatment preference depends upon the type, location, size, and extent of tumor along with a patient’s needs. Sometimes, a combination of the three treatments is used on a patient. Because cancer can recur in the original affected area, surgeons often remove the tumor, tissue, and some healthy bone surrounding the tumor. In some cases, especially in children, a metal device will be implanted in place of the bone that was removed by a surgeon. This metal device functions to save a limb and lengthen as the child grows.

Another type of treatment is chemotherapy. The National Cancer Institute, which covers both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, Murguia5 states that chemotherapy uses several drugs such as Cyclophosphamide, Vinblastine, and vincristine to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is a very intense treatment that can be given by mouth or by injection into a muscle or blood vessel. Chemotherapy is so powerful that there has to be a treatment period followed by a recovery period, which is usually when one has fully recovered from the intense drugs used in chemotherapy. Recovery periods can vary with each person.

The last treatment for bone cancer is radiotherapy. This type of treatment uses high- energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. Radiotherapy can sometimes be used in place of surgery to remove the bone cancer. Another use for radiotherapy is to kill cancer cells remaining in the affected area after treatment. All treatments for bone cancer are very strong. The treatments are so strong that they kill not only cancer cells but also some healthy cells. In conclusion there are many parts of the human body that have many similarities and differences that help you with who you are today.

The skeletal system plays a major role in your body and life, it helps you to do and accomplish many things. Everything involved in the skeletal system, every cell is what makes up every inch of your body. However it is very important to stay in shape because the older you get your skeletal system may start to shut down depending on how you’ve treated it today.

Work Cited Thibodeau and Patton. (2003). Anthonys Textbook of Anatomy and Phsysiology.Textbook of Anatomy and physiology. St. Louis. Missouri: Mosby. Inc *Explain and give examples of how physical development changes during conception, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. – WriteWork. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www. writework. com/essay/explain-and-give-examples-physical-development-changes-dur Bone cell. (2014, November 19). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bone_cell Bone resorption. (2014, November 19).

Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bone_resorption Compare and contrast in terms of structure and function the three different types of muscles found in the human body? (n. d. ).

Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www. ee_different_types_of_muscles_found_in_the_human_body Murguia6 Difference Between Compact and Cancellous Bone. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www. differencebetween. com/difference-between-compact-and-vs-cancellous-bone/

Human homeostasis. (2014, November 19). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_homeostasis List of bones of the human skeleton. (2014, November 14). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_bones_of_the_human_skeleton Muscular Syatem. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://legacy. owensboro. kctcs. edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API Notes J Muscle Contraction. htm What are the major events of muscle contraction and relaxation? (n. d. ).

Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://answerparty. com/question/answer/what-are-the-major-events-of-muscle- contraction-and-relaxation What are the three main functions of the skeletal system? (n. d. ). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www. cliffsnotes. com/cliffsnotes/sciences/what-are-the-three-main-functions-of-the- skeletal-system.

I know that skeletal disease pertain to the bones in the body. These can be deadly and limit the ability to move around and have a good, solid range of motion. I know that skeletal diseases are treated by orthopedics …

I know that skeletal disease pertain to the bones in the body. These can be deadly and limit the ability to move around and have a good, solid range of motion. I know that skeletal diseases are treated by orthopedics …

Directions: This is not a typical research paper that can be copy/pasted/plagiarized. In this assignment, you will personalize your search for learning more about an Skeletal, or bone disease. Part I: What do you know about Skeletal Diseases? What do …

The skeletal system is made up of all 206 bones in the human body they are all connected by joint and ligaments. The cranium also known as the skull is made up of 8 interlocking bones, the craniums job is …

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