The cognitive development stages were constructed and formulated basing on the logical errors children make in reasoning (table 1). In the processes of formulation, children at similar stage, made similar logical errors hence facilitated the grouping and thereafter categorization of cognitive developmental stages. These categorization of children who made similar logical errors in thinking, justified four cognitive development stages (Piaget, 1972). Sensory motor stage This stage occurs during the infancy stage of a child when an infant is between 0 to 2 years of age.
This stage encompasses memory or intelligence development, knowledge of the world, physical development and symbolic abilities development (Piaget, 1972). Importantly, intelligence is illustrated through motor activities, while knowledge about the world is limited but still in the process of developing based on the physical experiences. Mobility (physical development) facilitates development of new intellectual abilities and child acquires object permanency that enhances the memory. Moreover, at the end of the stage as transition to the pre- operational stage the child develops language abilities (Slee, 2002). Pre-operational stage
This cognitive development second stage starts from two to seven years and is exhibited by toddler and early childhood, it has two sub stages which are preconception from 2 to 4 years dominated by geocentricism and animism (Piaget, 1972). While the second sub stage is intuitive that reigns from 4 to 7 years when a child starts to employ thinking, solve issues and problems. Generally, intelligence of the child is depicted by symbols, advanced use language. Memory develops although thinking is done basing on non-logical manner. Body of literature; show that Short-term memory is traced back at this stage of development.
This is evident since at this stage, the child can remember a given stimulus 10 minutes later with a lasting memory for up to 24 hours (Huitt, 2007). Concrete operational stage This stage starts from 7 to11 years that encroaches elementary and early adolescence. Jean Piajet emphasize that this is a significant stage in child cognitive development, since it is characterized by 7 types of conservations; length, value, area, number, liquid: weight and mass. Whereby, failure of child to develop successful can lead to future difficulties in those critical aspects.
In addition to that, important cognitive processes occur and develop in this stage. For instance, seritation which is ability to sort objects in order of size, color and shape; classification abilities: decentering; reversabilityabilities; conservation and egocentric elimination. However, in this stage intelligence is demonstrated by logical and systematic manipulation of symbols which are related to concrete objects, while operational thinking develops fully (Piaget, 1972; Bruner, 1966). Formal operational stage Despite being the fourth stage of cognitive development, this stage is also crucial and important stage in cognitive development.
It starts from 11 years onwards, whereby intelligence is demonstrated by the use of logical symbols which are related to abstract ideas. This stage is greatly characterized by reasoning logically; thinking abstractly; and ability to draw conclusion from the thought of ideas (Piaget, 1972). Young adult who has attained this stage is able to think and understand social domains like values, love and logical proofs. Unfortunately, research conducted in relation to cognitive development reveals that only 35% of children that reaches this final stage in cognitive development, especially in industrialized countries.
Moreover, another research conducted indicates that many adults today in the world do not think formal during their adulthood stage (Haan, 2007). Conclusion In conclusion the paper has shown how human cognitive and memory develop by use of processes of schemas and operations; and the stages of development that has pointed out the critical developments related to memory especially at the pre-operational stage that is linked with short term memory development.
However, there are routines and essential inputs that facilitate individual memory development alongside cognitive development aspects. These are setting up of daily routines, repeating playtime rituals, and emphasis on proper diet and nutrition for our children and adults. In contrary, the only dark side of cognitive and memory development is the psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Huitt, 2007) that can hamper normal development.