Chronic and Infectious Diseases

Chronic and infectious diseases are diseases life threatening. A chronic diseases are non-communicable illnesses prolonged in duration, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). However, an infectious disease or communicable disease is contagious and caused by a biological agent, such as a virus, bacterium, or parasite also known as pathogens (The Metro Health System, 2002-2012).

There are some diseases, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Characteristics of a chronic disease, examining the relationship between a healthy nutritional diet, and cardiovascular disease, the effects of chronic, and infectious diseases, how exercise affects the immune system, and consumer awareness are the focus of this paper. Characteristics of a Chronic Disease Chronic diseases are often hard to detect because the disease spread slowly.

According to UCLA Center for Neurovisceral Sciences and Women’s Health (n. d. ), “chronic illnesses also have multiple causes varying over time, including heredity, lifestyle factors, exposure to environmental factors and physiological factors” (Chronic Illness). Individuals who smoke cigarettes put him or her at risk of several types of chronic illnesses. “Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower extremity arterial disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and is a predictor of mortality “(Hudson ; Mannino, 2010, p. 1).

Other unhealthy habits, such an unhealthy diet, overweight, and lack of physical activity put an individual at risk of developing a chronic disease. Relationship between a Healthy Nutritional Diet and Cardiovascular Disease A healthy diet and cardiovascular disease go hand-in-hand. According to Sanchez-Muniz (2012) Diet is considered the foundation for cardiovascular disease treatment (CVD) because a healthy diet can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation but also blood pressure, thrombogenesis, and concentrations of some relevant factors (e. g.homocystein).

However, an individual with an unhealthy diet will increase his or her chances of developing a cardiovascular disease. A diet high in saturated fat, fatty acids, sodium, sugar, and cholesterol will lead to obesity. When an individual is overweight or obese, he or she is highly susceptible to cardiovascular because of the association with diabetes, elevated blood cholesterol levels that may contribute to hypertension (Powers ; Dodd, 2009). Effects of Chronic and Infectious Diseases Chronic and infectious diseases weaken the immune system and damage the human body.

Different infectious diseases affect different part of the body. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) damages cells in the immune system progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, n. d. ). However, hepatitis B and C affects liver cells and some individuals will experience symptoms of yellowed eyes or skin (jaundice), fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, and flu-like symptoms (Riaz, Idrees, Kanwal, & Kabir ,2011).

Exercise and the Effects on the Immune System According to The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (1995-2012),”experimental studies have shown that a regular exercise program of brisk walking can bolster many defenses of the immune system, including the antibody response and the natural killer (T cell) response ” (Exercise and immunity). Exercise helps maintain a healthy body weight and reduces the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Exercise helps strengthen bones, which helps prevent falls and osteoarthritis and strengthens organs vital when fighting off a disease.

Consumer Awareness There are several nonprofit organizations that focus of promoting health care awareness, such as The National Breast Cancer Foundation is an organization making individuals aware of breast cancer. The mission of the nonprofit organization according to National Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc. (2012), “Our mission includes increasing awareness through education, providing diagnostic breast care services for those in need, and providing nurturing support services” (para.

1). Organizations such as the National Breast Cancer Foundation, Walk for Breast Cancer, and Susan B. Komen for the Cure get the community involved by setting up walks or marathons in the community to promote breast cancer awareness. Another way to promote awareness and involvement in health care is with sponsors. Sponsor’s such as Yoplait for Susan G. Komen for the Cure, Aphios for Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, and Macy’s for Go Red for Women (heart disease awareness). Conclusion.

Chronic and infectious disease can be deadly, but some are also preventable. Living a healthy lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, no smoking, and regular physical exercise lessons the chance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There are some chronic diseases inherited and unpreventable but staying physically fit can strengthen the immune system, which helps the body fight the disease.

References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Chronic Disease-At a glance. Retrieved from http://www. htm Hudson, N. L. , & Mannino, D. M. (2010, October). Tobacco use: A chronic illness?. Journal of Community Health, 35(5), 549-53. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Riaz, M. , Idrees, M. , Kanwal, H. , & Kabir, F. (2011, July ). An overview of triple infection with hepatitis B, C and D viruses. Virology Journal, 8(), 368. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Powers, S. K. , & Dodd, S. L. (2009). Total fitness and wellness (3rd ed. ). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc. Sanchez-Muniz, F.J. (2012, February).

Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 27(1), 31-45. EBSCOhost. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. (1995-2012). Diet, exercise, stress, and the immune system. Retrieved from http://www. clevelandclinic. org/health/health-info/docs/0900/0955. asp? index=5429 The Metro Health System. (2002-2012). What is an infectious disease. Retrieved from http://www. metrohealth. org/body. cfm? id=1570&oTopID=1570 U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n. d. ). Understanding HIV. AIDS.

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Basics * Non-infectious diseases (NIDs) are diseases NOT caused by a pathogen. They are also referred to as non-communicable diseases (NIDs). * Ex. include cancer, Parkinson’s and asthma. * A variety of causes contribute to NIDs including genetics, lifestyle choices, …

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