REPORT ON AN ONLINE SEMINAR ON PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY: WITH EMPHASIS ON PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG FORMS. SUMChemistry is the science that underpinned most of the major discoveries of the 20th century and will continue to do so throughout the 21st, as emphasis moves towards the understanding of biological approaches and more eco-friendly synthetic systems. The Pharmaceutical Chemistry BSc (Hons) relates to the uses of chemistry in modern society in the development, production and analysis of bio-active compounds.
In particular it concentrates on those chemical aspects related to human biology including biochemistry, pharmacognosy, medicine, design and synthesis of drugs including computer aided molecular modelling. The course places a strong emphasis on ‘hands-on’ laboratory work and applications of chemistry to the modern world. At least 40% of the curriculum involves laboratory or computer based experimentation and access to modern instrumental techniques will be paramount in your development.
A thorough grounding in theoretical aspects will provide you with the skills, knowledge and problem-solving abilities required for a successful career in industry, teaching, research and other careers where scientific skills are valued. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY Chemistry is the science that underpinned most of the major discoveries of the 20th century and will continue to do so throughout the 21st, as emphasis moves towards the understanding of biological approaches and more eco-friendly synthetic systems.
The Pharmaceutical Chemistry BSc (Hons) relates to the uses of chemistry in modern society in the development, production and analysis of bio-active compounds. It also provides students with an in-depth understanding of the processes and societal issues surrounding the design and development of modern pharmaceuticals. Students in this major will learn how drug works, their synthesis, design and delivery, and ethical issues surrounding pharmaceutical development. Pharm. Chem. is not “limited to the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents. ” Pharm. Chem.
also includes the synthesis and analysis of existing drugs and all kinds of properties (chemical, physicochemical, … ) and effects (pharmacological, toxicological, … ) of drugs – a very broad field. the science of design and chemical synthesis focusing mainly on small organic molecules and their development of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). plus the science of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis to the synthesized agents. CRITICAL OVERVEIW OF THE SEMINAR Pharmacology The seminar was presented by Professor Surendersen and DR.
Sumitra Yadav. The presentation was started with Professor Surrendesen defining pharmacology by splitting the word into “pharmacon” and “logy. ” According to him, pharmacon means drugs, and logy means study. In essence, pharmacology is the study of drugs. He further explained that pharmacology is a broad field that include pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics. According to him, pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on the body or on animals or parasites and microorganisms.
While pharmacokinetics is the process of alteration, distribution, bioavailabity, and toxicity. He also talked about the function of biotransformation and excretion of drugs, which are performed by the liver and kidney respectively. Finally, he delved into pharmaceutics, which he defined to mean the formulation, manufacture, stability, and effectiveness of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The topic is of great importance to me because my interest in the field of pharmacology. The problem with his aspect of the presentation is that it has no depth.
It is more definitional, it does not than the presentation of a researched work or a review of scientific papers. More so, I understand that English is not his first language, he frequently imports his native language into the discussion, thereby making it difficult to understand. Pharmaceutics Dr. Sumitra’ s presentation was mainly on pharmaceutics, which she defined as the formulation, manufacture, stability, effectiveness of pharmaceutical dosage form. She defined dosage form as comprising of the drug and non- pharmaceutical agent.
Pharmaceutical dosage forms Definition: A formulation of the API(s) and excipients in quantities and physical form designed to allow the accurate and ef? cient administration of the API to the human or animal patient. Function: A dosage form allows for a drug to safely be administered into a host. There are many different types of dosage forms which allow for different applications of a drug to a patient, this way if there is a complication with one way there is always another.
For instance the patients mouth is wired shut so they are not able to take the dosage form orally, they may be given a injection or maybe a suppository so that they will still be able to obtain the drug intake that they need. Sustained –Release Forms: A type of modi? ed-release dosage form. A descriptive term for a dosage form deliberately modi? ed to delay release of the API for some period of time after initial administration.
Release of the API is prevented in the gastric environment but promoted in the intestinal environment; this term is synonymous with Enteric-Coated or GastroResistant Advantages: Capsules sometimes are formulated to include enteric-coated granules to protect acid-labile APIs from the gastric environment or to prevent adverse events such as irritation.
Enteric-coated multiparticulate capsule dosage forms may reduce variability in bioavailability associated with gastric emptying times for larger particles (i. e., tablets) and to minimize the likelihood of a therapeutic failure when coating defects occur during manufacturing Disadvantages CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENTS IN DRUG DELIVERY Routes of Administration:
* Gastro-Intestinal * Injection * Mucosal * Topical Dermal * Inhilation Types of Dosage Forms * Aerosols * Capsules * Dry Powder Inhaler * Emulsions (creams, lotions) * Gels * Implants * Inserts http://www. usp. org/sites/default/files/usp_pdf/EN/USPNF/pharmaceuticalDosageForms. pdf http://gut. bmj. com/content/27/8/886. full. pdf+html.