Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display ”uncontrolled growth” (division beyond the normal limits), ”invasion” (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes ”metastasis” (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). There are over 150 types of cancers. Cancers in teens:- 1. Osteosarcoma (Pronounced: os-tee-oh-sar-koh-muh) is the most common type of bone cancer. In teens, it can sometimes appear during their growth spurts and tends to show up in people who are taller than average.
In most cases, there is no known cause for osteosarcoma. Fig. 1. Leg affected by Osteosarcoma Symptoms The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma are pain and swelling in an arm or leg that is sometimes accompanied by a lump. Some people have more pain at night or when they exercise. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the bones around the knee but can occur in other bones as well. In some cases, a tumour can spread or metastasize (when cells from a tumour break away from the original cancer site and travel to a different tissue or organ) to the lungs and other bones. Treatment.
Treatment for osteosarcoma usually involves chemotherapy (medication that kills cancer cells) as well as surgery to remove the tumour. A doctor may perform limb-salvage surgery, where the bone that has cancer is removed and the limb (usually an arm or leg) is saved from amputation by filling the gap with a bone graft or special metal rod. In other cases, a doctor may need to amputate (remove) part or the entire limb to fight the cancer. Most people develop side effects, such as hair loss, bleeding, infections, and heart or skin problems, from medicines used in chemotherapy treatment for osteosarcoma.
Chemotherapy may also increase the person’s risk of developing other cancers in the future. The good news is that most teens with osteosarcoma do recover. 2. Leukaemia Leukaemia is one of the most common childhood cancers. It occurs when large numbers of abnormal white blood cells called leukemic blasts fill the bone marrow and sometimes enter the bloodstream. Because these abnormal blood cells are defective, they don’t help protect the body against infection the way normal white blood cells do.
And because they grow uncontrollably, they take over the bone marrow and interfere with the body’s production of other important types of cells in the bloodstream, like red blood cells (which carry oxygen) and platelets. fig. 2. A baby suffering from leukemia : symptom-purple spots Symptoms Leukaemia causes problems like bleeding, anaemia (low numbers of red blood cells), bone pain, and infections,purple spots and patches on body. It can also spread to other places like the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, brain, and the testicles in males. Treatment.
Virtually all people with ALL and AML are treated with chemotherapy, and some also receive stem cell transplants, in which they are given new stem cells from another person. Bone marrow transplants are a common form of stem cell transplantation. Some people also receive radiation. 3. Rhabdomyosarcomas Fig. 3.. A tumour from cheeks (Pronounced: rab-doe-my-uh-sar-koe-muhz), or soft tissue sarcomas, are less common cancers that mostly occur in infants, kids, and teens. With these cancers, cancer cells grow in the soft tissues of the muscles (the body’s muscles that a person controls for movement).
Though these cancers can occur anywhere in the body, rhabdomyosarcomas most frequently happen within the muscles in the trunk, arms, or legs. The types of treatment used and chances for recovery depend upon where the rhabdomyosarcoma is located and whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body. 4. Pancreatic cancer Risk factors of pancreatic cancer include: * Smoking. Smokers are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than non-smokers. * Race. African-American is diagnosed more frequently than other races with pancreatic cancer.
The diverse ratio of diagnoses among ethnic groups in not yet clear. * Increasing age. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer greatly increases after age 50. * Having Diabetes. Pancreatic cancer is diagnosed more often in people with diabetes. * Chronic Pancreatitis. Chronic inflammation of the pancreas may slightly increase your risk of pancreatic cancer. * Family History. Pancreatic cancer runs in some families. About 10% of cases are thought to be related to inherited genetic mutations. * Fig. 4. 4. tumour in pancreas Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer * Weight loss * Glucose intolerance * Fatigue
* Abdominal discomfort or pain * sudden onset of diabetes * brown or orange colored urine When the pancreas produce too much insulin, other symptoms such as chills, diarrhea, general feeling of weakness, and muscle spasms may also be experienced. Diagnosis One of the first steps may be imaging tests like an ultrasound or MRI may be done to get a better view of the pancreas. Your doctor may recommend you have an endoscopy combined with special techniques like an ultrasound to further evaluate the pancreas. Ultimately it is a biopsy that confirms the presence or absence of cancer. Treatment.
There are three types of treatment methods for pancreatic cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatment heavily depends on the stage of pancreatic cancer, type, and general health. 5. Kidney cancer Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs most often in men ages 50 – 70. The exact cause is unknown. The following may increase your risk of kidney cancer: * Dialysis treatment * Family history of the disease.
* High blood pressure * Horseshoe kidney * Polycystic kidney disease * Smoking * Von Hippel-Lindau disease (a hereditary disease that affects blood vessels in the brain, eyes, and other body parts) * Symptoms * Abdominal pain and swelling * Back pain * Blood in the urine * Swelling of the veins around a testicle (varicocele) * Flank pain * Weight loss Other symptoms that can occur with this disease: * Excessive hair growth in females * Pale skin * Vision problems Signs and tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This may reveal: * Mass or swelling of the abdomen * A varicocele in the male scrotum.
Tests include: * Abdominal CT scan * Blood chemistry * Complete blood count (CBC) * Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) * Liver function tests * Renal arteriography * Ultrasound of the abdomen and kidney * Urine tests The following tests may be done to see if the cancer has spread: * Abdominal CT scan * Abdominal MRI * Bone scan * Chest x-ray * Chest CT scan * PET scan Treatment Surgery to remove of all or part of the kidney (nephrectomy) is recommended. This may include removing the bladder, surrounding tissues, or lymph nodes. Chemotherapy and radiation is generally not effective for treating kidney cancer.
However, the drug interleukin-2 (IL-2) may help some patients. It is a very powerful drug that can have severe side effects. 6.. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man’s reproductive system. It wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Prostate cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in men over age 75. Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 40. People who are at risk include:
? Men who use too much alcohol ? Farmers ? Men who eat a diet high in fat, especially animal fat ? Tire plant workers ? Painters ? Men who have been around cadmium Fig. 5. stages of prostate cancer Symptoms The symptoms listed below can occur with prostate cancer, usually at a late stage. These symptoms can also be caused by other prostate problems: * Delayed or slowed start of urinary stream * Dribbling or leakage of urine, most often after urinating * Slow urinary stream * Straining when urinating, or not being able to empty out all of the urine * Blood in the urine or semen.
* Bone pain or tenderness, most often in the lower back and pelvic bones (only when the cancer has spread) Signs and tests A biopsy is needed to tell if you have prostate cancer. Following tests may be done to determine whether the cancer has spread: * CT scan * Bone scan Treatment R early-stage prostate cancer, this may include: * Surgery (radical prostatectomy) * Radiation therapy, including brachytherapy and proton therapy If the prostate cancer has spread, treatment may include: * Hormone therapy (medicines to reduce testosterone levels) * Surgery * Chemotherapy 7. Cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. Fig. 6. Region where cervical cancer occurs Causes, incidence, and risk factors Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United States because of the routine use of Pap smears. Cervical cancers start in the cells on the surface of the cervix. There are two types of cells on the cervix’s surface: squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers are from squamous cells. Cervical cancer usually develops very slowly.
It starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by a Pap smear and is 100% treatable. It can take years for precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. Most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer today have not had regular Pap smears or they have not followed up on abnormal Pap smear results. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse. There are many different types of HPV. Some strains lead to cervical cancer.
(Other strains may cause genital warts, while others do not cause any problems at all. ) A woman’s sexual habits and patterns can increase her risk for cervical cancer. Risky sexual practices include having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, and having multiple partners or partners who participate in high-risk sexual activities. Risk factors for cervical cancer include: * Not getting the HPV vaccine * Poor economic status * Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage * Weakened immune system.
Symptoms Normal cervix cancerous cervix Fig. 7. Normal and cancerous cervix Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur can include: * Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause * Continuous vaginal discharge, which may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling * Periods become heavier and last longer than usual Cervical cancer may spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. Patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread.
Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include: * Back pain * Bone pain or fractures * Fatigue * Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina * Leg pain * Loss of appetite * Pelvic pain * Single swollen leg * Weight loss Signs and tests Precancerous changes of the cervix and cervical cancer cannot be seen with the naked eye. Special tests and tools are needed to spot such conditions. * Pap smears screen for precancers and cancer, but do not make a final diagnosis. * If abnormal changes are found, the cervix is usually examined under magnification.
This is called colposcopy. Pieces of tissue are surgically removed (biopsied) during this procedure and sent to a laboratory for examination. * Cone biopsy may also be done. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the health care provider will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Tests may include: * Chest x-ray * CT scan of the pelvis * Cystoscopy * Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) * MRI of the pelvis Treatment Early cervical cancer can be cured by removing or destroying the precancerous or cancerous tissue.
There are various surgical ways to do this without removing the uterus or damaging the cervix, so that a woman can still have children in the future. Some types of surgery for early cervical cancer include: * Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) — uses electricity to remove abnormal tissue * Cryotherapy — freezes abnormal cells * Laser therapy — uses light to burn abnormal tissue Complications * Some types of cervical cancer do not respond well to treatment. * The cancer may come back (recur) after treatment. * Women who have treatment to save the uterus have a high risk of the cancer coming back (recurrence).
* Surgery and radiation can cause problems with sexual, bowel, and bladder function. 8. Oral cancer Oral cancer is cancer of the mouth. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Fig. 9. symptoms of oral cancer Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: * Cheek lining * Floor of the mouth * Gums (gingiva) * Roof of the mouth (palate) Most oral cancers are a type called squamous cell carcinomas. These tend to spread quickly. Smoking and other tobacco use are linked to most cases of oral cancer. Heavy alcohol use also increases your risk for oral cancer.
Other factors that may increase the risk for oral cancer include: * Chronic irritation (such as from rough teeth, dentures, or fillings) * Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection * Taking medications that weaken the immune system (immunosuppressants) * Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque (leukoplakia) or as a mouth ulcer. Men get oral cancer twice as often as women do, particularly men older than 40. Symptoms Fig. 8. ulcer in mouth Sore, lump, or ulcer in the mouth: * May be a deep, hard-edged crack in the tissue * Most often pale colored, but may be dark or discolored.
* On the tongue, lip, or other area of the mouth * Usually painless at first (may develop a burning sensation or pain when the tumor is advanced) Other symptoms that may occur with oral cancer include: * Chewing problems * Mouth sores * Pain with swallowing * Speech difficulties * Swallowing difficulty * Swollen lymph nodes in the neck * Tongue problems * Weight loss Signs and tests Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may show: * A sore on the lip, tongue, or other area of the mouth * An ulcer or bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: * Gum biopsy * Tongue biopsy.
X-rays and CT scans may be done to determine if the cancer has spread. Treatment Surgery to remove the tumor is usually recommended if the tumor is small enough. Surgery may be used together with radiation therapy and chemotherapy for larger tumors. Surgery is not commonly done if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the neck. Other treatments may include speech therapy or other therapy to improve movement, chewing, swallowing, and speech. *Some methods of detecting cancer* Fig. 10. CT scan machine Fig. 11. 5mm lung cancer detected by ct scan Fig. 12. MRI machine Fig. 13. tumour detected in prostate by MRI test.