Body in Motion

The fitness test performed in the lab that was used to effectively measure cardio-respiratory endurance was the multi-stage fitness test otherwise known as the 20 metre shuttle run or the ‘beep’ test. Two cones were set up twenty metres apart. The participant must move between the cones back and forth throughout the duration of the test. This test is based under the instruction of a voice on a CD.

The CD may be purchased from The Australian Coaching Council / Australian Sports Commission and it is important that the tape or CD is not damaged in any way as this could affect timing of the beeps due to stretches on the CD or stretching of the cassette. The volume of the tape must also be loud so that all participants can hear it. Prior to the test participants are advised to stretch and warm up to reduce the risk of injury. Appropriate supportive clothing and footwear is to be worn to maximise safety. The voice instructs participants of what they are required to do throughout the entire duration of completing the test.

At the beginning of the test the voiceover instructs when there are 20 seconds and 5 seconds until the commencement of the test and then participants must begin the test. They must reach the opposite cone before a sounded beep. The pace of the participant is influenced by the beeps. The beeps begin at a considerably slow speed and gradually throughout the test the frequency of the beeps increase necessitating for the participant to gradually progress from a slow jog, to a run and then to a sprint.

The speed increase 0. 5 kmh each minute and the beginning pace is at 8.5 kmh. The pace remains the same for an entire level and does not vary between shuttles within that level. The subject has two chances to miss the beep and after this they must withdraw from the testing and listen to what level and shuttle they obtained. If a runner reaches the line or cone prior to a beep they must wait here for the beep to sound before moving off. When this fitness test was performed in the lab the class were in partners and the test was run in two groups having a person from each pair in the first test and the other in the second round of test.

The person in the pair who was not running would immediately record the heart rate and respiration rates immediately after completion of the test and then at one minute intervals for five minutes. The resting heart rate was also recorded prior to the test. The test was conducted on a smooth surface (the basketball courts). Surfaces can have a large affect upon performance as can the weather and the time of the day. It is recommended that participants also warm down following the conclusion of the test.

This testing protocol demonstrated how the cardio-respiratory system can supply the exercising muscles with oxygen thus measuring cardio-respiratory endurance. The test was also used to be able to calculate heart rate, respiration rate, VO2 levels and the effect that each of these had during exercise. Students who performed exceptionally well have excellent functioning and the system and the organs involved work effectively together. 2. Explain in detail the functions of the respiratory and circulatory systems and the different roles that they performed in order for you the complete the test.

It is suggested that you refer to your results in this section to support your explanation and include tables and / or diagrams or charts. Both the respiratory and circulatory systems play vital roles in order for our body to function. Their individual way of responding to exercise was examined whilst conducting the multistage fitness test in the lab. The respiratory system is a vital system in our body which takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

For an organism to live and survive each cell within their body needs the supply of oxygen (O2) and energy obtained from food as well as carbon dioxide to exit their body as oxygen enters. These jobs are all responsibilities of the respiratory system. The process that the respiratory system endures is known as respiration. The respiratory system is made up of the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. Oxygen in the air is breathed in via the nose or mouth called inspiration caused by the diaphragm contracting.

The oxygen passes through the nasal passages transporting the air to the pharynx. The pharynx acts as a pathway to the larynx. White blood cells in the larynx complete their role by attacking potentially diseases causing microbes from travelling any further if they have already passed the other defensive forces in the nasal pathways. The larynx role in the respiratory system is to transport air to the trachea. Strong rings of cartilage enable the trachea to open so that air can pass through this passageway from the larynx to the bronchi.

The bronchi separates into two tubes from the trachea which also split into more tubes known as the bronchioles. Air sacs called alveoli then transport oxygen whilst removing carbon dioxide. From here the oxygen scatters into our capillaries then to vessels which connect the arteries and the veins. Pulmonary veins carry blood to the left atrium of the heart, flowing to the left ventricle. The blood is then pumped to the rest of the body through the arteries and the oxygen is now lost. Haemoglobin in red blood cells also transports oxygen to cells in the body.

The blood returns to the heart by the pulmonary veins through the right atrium and ventricle. The deoxygenated blood is now returned to the lungs and the exhalation occurs and this air is breathed out through the nose and mouth. When oxygen cannot be supplied to the muscles quick enough oxygen from the haemoglobin, myoglobin air in the lungs, and body fluids acts as a temporary substitute until the oxygen flow can regain itself when the borrowed oxygen is returned to wherever it may be borrowed from. This is called oxygen debt. Blood is continually flowing around our bodies.

The bodily parts which the blood flows through make up the circulatory system or alternatively the cardiovascular system. The circulatory system includes the heart, blood and blood vessels. This system pumps blood containing oxygen and nutrients around the body and collects wastes. The heart is what enables the blood to be pumped around the body. It is situated between the lungs and diaphragm with a muscle wall dividing it into a left and right side. There are two chambers in each side being the atrium and ventricle. Haemoglobin in red blood cells absorbs oxygen and carries it to body cells.

Cardiac blood vessels linked from the aorta spread over the myocardium which is a special muscle that these chambers are made up of and allows the heart to pump blood, along with the cardiac cycle. The cardiac cycle is the process that the heart goes through to contract and relax to receive blood from the veins and pump it to the lungs and around the body. The cardiac process can be described in a two step process. Diastole is when the heart expands and blood flows from the atria into ventricles. Systole is when the heart contracts and deoxygenated blood flows into the arteries form the ventricles and to the lungs and body.

Our heart rhythmically contracts requiring a rich supply of blood and oxygen to do this. The cardio-respiratory system played a vital role in order for me to complete the beep test. Prior to the test both the respiratory and circulatory systems and the co-functioning of these making up the cardiovascular system were all at rest. They were functioning as normal because no extra stress was placed upon the heart. For example; my resting heart rate was measured at 60 beats and my respiration at 16 breaths. Both my heart rate and respiration rate however was evidently affected by exercise as was both of these bodily systems.

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