Blood vessels

There are 3 different blood vessels there are arteries, veins and capillaries Arteries carry blood away from the heart and because they have a job to pump blood quickly they have a thick elastic muscular wall. Veins have got thinner muscular walls, which carry the blood back to the heart. Capillaries are one thick cell, they make the exchange of nutrients and respiratory gasses which occurs across their surface. Heart blood flow 1. The blood exits via the right hand side of the heart it leaves by the pulmonary artery and goes to the lungs to be oxygenated.

2. It the returns to the left hand side of the heart via the pulmonary vein. 3. The left hand side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood around the rest of the body via the aorta. 4. Once the oxygen i the blood has been used up the blood returns to the right hand side of the heart via the vena cava, to start the process of oxygenating the blood again. Temperature control Heating is lost by radiation and convection, the body sweats and the sweat is what happens when we get too hot and the body sweats to cool ourselves down. Short term effects on exercise There is and anticipatory rise in heart rate which makes the body 🙂 become prepared for exercise, this is caused by a sharp rise in the release of hormones which is caused by the sense organs. The increase of heart rate will continue even when the person has finished exercising.

Long term effects The long term effects make the capillaries density and efficiency increase. The resting heart rate will drop, it will also get bigger stronger and more efficient. The cardiac output will increase as the heart is able to pump more blood this means that the blood pressure will lower. The amount of haemoglobin which will help carry oxygen increases as the body creates more red blood cells this will help the person become fitter and stronger and all-round more healthy.

Respiratory system The reason we have a respiratory system is that it brings the air which we breathe in to close contact with so that the oxygen can be allowed to be absorbed and the carbon dioxide is removed. The respiratory system consists of 1 pair of lungs connected to the mouth by the trachea and the bronchi which enables us to breath and for this process to take place. Trachea The trachea in the human body is 10cm in length and it is supported by a c-shape ring (cartilage) this cartilage prevents the tube from collapsing whilst we breathe. It is divided in to the left and right bronchus. The bronchi are strengthened by the cartilage and they are subdivided to form a group called bronchioles, then the air goes to the gas exchange surfaces – the alveoli. Air enters the body by the nose and mouth and passes through via the pharynx and larynx to the trachea. Air is then delivered to the alveoli as the trachea branches into bronchi and then bronchioles.

Alveoli Alveoli is an extremely tiny structure which is situated in the lungs, this is where the exchange of oxygen and co2 takes place. The walls of the alveoli are very moist and very thin this helps the co2 and the oxygen to pas through them easily this is called diffusion. The bunches of alveoli are surrounded by a dense network of capillaries. The capillaries have also got a really thin wall which again helps the diffusion on co2 and oxygen from the blood and into the blood.

Short term effects on exercise Whilst people exercise there tidal volume increases, tidal volume is the amount of air that is inspired or expired per breath this occurs mainly whilst exercising and maybe after exercising. The aspiratory reserve volume decreases this is the maximal volume inspires in addition to TV. Also whilst exercising the expiration reserve volume decreases this is the maximal volume expired in addition to TV. The residual volume increases, this is the amount of oxygen left in the lungs after expiration. The vital capacity decreases slightly this is because the maximal amount of air can be forcibly exhaled after inspiration has occurred. Also the total lung capacity decreases as this is VC+RV = the remaining volume after maximal inspiration has happened.

Long term effects As the human body slowly adapts to exercise, anything and everything involved with the respiration becomes more effective and also becomes more efficient. The intercostals muscles and the diaphragm before larger and stronger this lets the person perform larger breathing actions. This then allows more oxygen to be taken in and enables the body to dispose of waste products more quickly. Therefore this improves the persons overall stamina which will then allow them to train for longer and more intensely. This can then help them to manage their body weight, reduce there cholesterol levels and improve the conditions of their muscular and their skeletal systems.

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