BIOS 275 WEEK ONE HOMEWORK (20 points) ALL answers are to be TYPED IN BLACK 1. Describe the three medical uses for drugs and give examples. (2 points) The three medical uses for drugs are: used to prevent disease, to diagnose disease, and to treat symptoms, signs, conditions, and diseases. Examples: Preventive use – Dramamine prevents motion sickness Diagnostic use – Radiopaque contrast dyes used during x-ray procedures Therapeutic use – Antibiotic drugs to kill bacteria and cure an infection 2. Give the meaning of and describe the linguistic origin of the symbol Rx.
(2 points) The symbol Rx, which comes from the Latin word recipe, meaning take, indicates a prescription, the combining of ingredients to form a drug. 3. Give the name of a medication in current usage that originated from the natural source of: foxglove plant, sheep’s wool, rose hips, mold, poppy and periwinkle. (2 points) NATURAL SOURCE DRUG a. foxglove plant_ digoxin (Lanoxin) b. sheeps’ wool _ Lanolin _______ c. rose hips _ vitamin C ______ d. poppy_ morphine _______ e. mold _ penicillin ______ f. periwinkle _ vincristine ______ 4.
Describe four ways in which a new drug can be discovered or created. (2 points) – Ancient sources – A new chemical can be discovered in the environment, from plants, from animals, from the ocean, or from the soil. – A totally new chemical can be derived from molecular manipulation of a drug that is already in use. – A totally new chemical can be created through genetic manipulation. 5. What types of drug characteristics/effects are studied during each of the three phases of human testing of a drug prior to FDA approval? (3 points) 1.
10 to 100 healthy volunteers are used to study a safe dose range, evaluate side effects, and establish a final, correct dose. 2. The drug is given on an experimental basis to about 50 to 500 patients who actually have the disease that the drug is intended to treat. 3. The drug is administered to several hundred or several thousand ill patients in exactly the way (dose, route of administration, frequency, etc. ) in which it will be used once it is on 2829the market. 6. How do computers assist in the designing of new drugs? (2 points).
– A computer can display the molecular structure of any drug from a listing of thousands contained in its database – The computer can also identify those chemicals that would probably not be successful in treating a particular disease before time and money are invested in extensive testing. 7. What is the reason for manufacturing a drug as an enteric-coated tablet? (2 points) An enteric-coated tablet is covered with a special coating that resists stomach acid, but dissolves in the alkaline environment of the small intestine to avoid irritating the stomach. 8. Describe the difference between an elixir and syrup. (1 point)
Elixirs are solutions that contain the drug in a water and alcohol base with added sugar and flavoring. Syrups are solutions that contain the drug in a thickened water base with added sugar and flavorings, but no alcohol. 9. What can be done with a scored tablet that cannot be done with other tablets? (1 point) A scored tablet can be easily and accurately divided into two or three equal doses, depending on the number of score marks on the tablet.
10. Differentiate between the feel, appearance, and consistency of an ointment versus a cream versus a lotion. (3 points) – An ointment is a semisolid emulsion of oil (lanolin or petroleum) and water, the main ingredient being oil. – A cream is a semisolid emulsion of oil (lanolin or petroleum) and water, the main ingredient being water. – A lotion is a suspension of a drug in a water base. Turley, Susan M. (2010). Understanding Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.