Biology Mitosis and Meiosis Study Guide

Chapter 7
1. 3 effects of mutations
a. Good, bad, silent
i. What silent is in terms of amino acids
2. Point mutation
3. Frameshift mutation
4. Main causes of mutation of DNA
5. Which mutations are heritable
6. Definition of allele
b. How process of mutation in replication leads to new alleles 7. Transgenic organism
c. What it is
d. How its created
e. Definition of recombinant DNA
8. What gene therapy is in general
Chapter 8
9. Programmed cell death =?
f. Why it’s important that cell division be balanced with cell death 10. 2 main functions of apoptosis
11. Name of apoptosis-specific enzyme
12. Main difference between mitosis and meiosis
13. Why must all DNA be replicated before mitosis?
14. Definition of semiconservative
g. How this is important to DNA replication
15. Remember DNA replication uses lots of ATP!
16. 2 main enzymes in DNA replication
h. DNA polymerase – what does this do?
i. Helicase – what does this do?
17. How DNA is condensed and packaged into nucleus
j. What 2 components are found in the condensed version of DNA 18. Difference between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes 19. 2 major phases of cell cycle
k. 3 divisions of interphase
ii. What happens in each phase
iii. Checkpoints
l. 4 phases of cell division (mitosis)
iv. What happens in each phase
v. Cytokinesis
1. When it happens
2. What happens
3. Difference between plant and animal cells
20. Telomere
m. How this is thought to be involved in cancer
n. What happens to telomeres in normal cells and role in cell death/aging 21. Abnormal mass of tissue
o. Difference between benign and malignant
22. Oncogene
p. What they can do to cause cancer
23. Tumor suppressor genes
q. What they can do to cause cancer
24. Other common contributors to development of cancer
25. Best way to beat cancer
26. Common cancer treatments
r. Surgery
s. Radiation
t. Chemotherapy
27. 2 different types of stem cells
u. Adult vs. embryonic
v. Pluripotent vs. totipotent
28. First animal to be cloned
w. Basic description of how it was done
29. Full name of PCR
x. What this techniques does
y. How it is used for
30. DNA sequencing
z. What this technique does
31. DNA microarray
{. How this is used – 2 main jobs
32. DNA profiling
|. How this is used
2 examples we discussed in class
Chapter 9

1. 2 main differences between asexual and sexual reproduction 2. Name of body cells
a. Number of chromosomes found in them
b. Term that describes having 2 full sets of genetic information c. Way these cells are produced
d. Example of cells that do not undergo the process of cell division 3. Name of sperm and egg cells
e. Number of chromosomes found in them
f. Term that describes having 1 full set of genetic information g. Way these cells are produced
4. Karyotype
h. Definition
i. Which chromosomes are biggest and smallest
5. Difference between homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids 6. Autosome vs. sex chromosomes
j. How many of each found in somatic cells
k. How many of each found in sex (germ) cells
l. What sex chromosomes make a girl vs. boy
m. Which parent controls the sex of the child (mother or father) and why 7. Meiosis
n. General idea of what is happening
o. Type of cells that use meiosis
p. Main steps of meiosis and what is happening during each phase 8. 3 ways variability is added to organism by meiosis
q. Crossing over
i. What it is
ii. When it happens
iii. 2 types of chromosomes it creates
r. Random alignment
s. Random fertilization
9. Difference between fraternal or identical twins
10. Main differences between mitosis and meiosis
t. Number of cells produced
u. Number of chromosomes in each daughter cell
11. Polyploidy
12. Nondisjunction
v. Most prominent example in humans
w. Describe difference in effects when nondisjunction happens in the first vs the second phase of meiosis 13. Chromosomal changes
x. Deletions
y. Duplications
z. Inversions
{. Translocations
14. Spermatogenesis
|. What is it
}. How long does it occur in males and why?
15. Oogenesis
~. What is it}.

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