1. There are four major groups of diseases which occur in living organisms. Pathogenic diseases are caused by ‘disease causing agents’ called pathogens, such as a virus, bacterium or fungus. Deficiency diseases are caused by a lack of some particular nutrient in one’s diet. Physiological diseases are diseases in which the organs or systems in the body malfunction, due to one’s lifestyle or it may be inherited. Hereditary diseases are diseases or disorders which are inherited genetically. 2. |Type of Disease |Examples |Treatment, Control, Cure | |1. Pathogenic |1.
Lyme Disease |Antibiotics(e. g. doxycycline or amoxicillin) | | |2. Pneumonia |Antibiotics (e. g. Penicillin VK) | | |3. Whooping Cough |Macrolide Antibiotics | | |4. Leptospirosis |Antibiotics(e. g. Penicillin G,Tetracyline | |2. Deficiency |1. Rickets |Eating more food rich in Vitamin D & Calcium | | | |Vitamin D& Calcium supplements | | | |Increase in exposure to sunlight | | |2. Scurvy |Eating more food rich in Vitamin C (e. g. Citrus) | | | |Vitamin C supplements | | |3. Beri Beri |Thiamine supplements | | | |Thiamine rich diet (e. g. oatmeal, brown rice) | | |4.
Pellagra |Oral intake of Nicotinamide or niacin | |3. Physiological |1. Hypertension |Low sodium diet | | | |Exercise | | | |Antihypertensive drugs | | |2. Diabetes |Insulin | | | |Exercise | | | |Diabetic diet | | | |Oral medication | | |3. Asthma |Avoid asthma triggers, Various Medications | | |4. Cirrhosis |Healthy diet, Alcohol abstinence, Liver transplant | |4. Hereditary |1. Hereditary Spherocytosis |Splenectomy, Partial splenectomy, Cholecystectomyy | | |2. Sickle Cell |Penicillin, Hydroxyurea, Transfusion Therapy, Bone Marrow Transplants | | |3.
Cystic Fibrosis |Antibiotics, Organ Transplantation, Gene Therapy | | |4. Hemophilia |Regular infusion of deficient clotting factor, Gene therapy, Exercise(to | | | |strengthen joints) | 3. Economic Impact of Diseases: Diseases have a major impact on a country’s economy. They cause a decrease in the number of available human resource due to absenteeism or premature death, thus a decrease in productivity. A decrease in productivity would cause a financial loss for the country. There would be a decrease in export, and an increase in imports, therefore decreasing the GDP of the country.
The government would have to spend a large sum of money on treatment methods, and seek help from other, more advanced countries, putting the country into millions of dollars of debt. Diseases would ultimately lower the standard of living of a people. 4. Drug use is the consumption of drugs or prescription medication. Drug misuse is the use of a drug for a purpose other than the one for which it was prescribed. Drug abuse is the habitual, excessive use of a drug. 5. Social and Economic implications of diseases in Plants and Animals Diseases in plants and animals cause great damage to the agricultural sector of a country.
If not treated soon enough, entire fields of crop could be wiped out. Farmers would be financially devastated. The country would have to import goods that they would have been able to self-produce before. A decrease in supply would also affect the consumer, because prices of goods would go up drastically. Ultimately, the people may not be able to afford the necessities to live comfortable as before. 6. Plant diseases affecting agriculture in Dominica: Black Sigatoka-Black Sigatoka is a leaf spot disease of banana plants caused by ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet).
It attacks the leaves of banana and plantain plants, affecting the process of photosynthesis and reducing yields. Banana and plantain are two of Dominica’s major exported products; therefore the government is seeking help from other countries and organizations, in order to keep the country economically stable. Unfortunately two Caribbean countries have already placed import restrictions on fruits from Dominica. Citrus Greening Disease- this disease is probably the worst of citrus diseases caused by a vectored pathogen. Infected trees produce small, irregular shaped fruit.
Citrus is another main export of Dominica. Many farmers depend solely upon the income received after selling fruits such as grapefruits and oranges. Agricultural authorities are attempting to control the disease and prevent it from spreading across entire farms. Crown Rot Disease- this disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum musae. It affects bananas, and their close relatives, plantains. As mentioned before, bananas and plantains are two of the main exports of Dominica; therefore any disease affecting them could have a negative impact on the economy.
Crown rot causes a brown to black color to develop where the hand was severed from the bunch. Frequently a layer of whitish mold forms on the cut surface of the crown. The disease decreases the quality of the produce, and discourages buyers from returning. 7. a) Life Cycle of a Mosquito Egg- They are laid one at a time, and float on the surface of the water. One should avoid having empty tins, cans, drums or any object which can hold water, in or near their homes. Larva- They live in the water, and surface to breathe.
The larva feed on micro-organisms and organic matter in the water. They shed their skin four times, growing larger each time. On the fourth shedding the larva changes into a pupa. Pupa- The pupal stage is a resting, non feeding stage. The pupa floats on the surface of water and breathes through two tubes called ‘trumpets’. This is the time the mosquito turns into an adult. It takes approximately two days before the adult is fully developed. When development is complete the pupal skin splits and the mosquito emerges as an adult.
Adult- The newly emerged adult rests on the surface of the water to allow itself to dry and all its parts to harden. Also the wings have to spread out and dry properly before it can fly. It is wise to cut down weeds, tall grass and bushes around the home, since these are the known homes of adult mosquitoes. Pesticide sprays can also be used to kill adult mosquitoes. b) A pathogenic disease such as Influenza can be transmitted by: direct contact with infected persons, contact with contaminated objects or by inhalation of contaminated aerosols.
Whereas, a Physiological disease such as Diabetes, may be passed on from a parent to his/her child. c) A pathogenic disease such as Pneumonia would be treated with various antibiotics. However, a physiological disease such as Hypertension would require antihypertensive drugs, and more importantly a change in one’s diet and lifestyle, to include regular exercise. d) The disease HIV/AIDS has not impacted the Caribbean countries as much as others, such as Africa, but there is an increase in the number of newly infected persons every year.
It has been found that many people living with HIV/AIDS are unemployed. Many had lost their jobs, but some had voluntarily left the workplace due to the high level of discrimination. This epidemic is seriously undermining the human resource development by selectively reducing the workforce through sickness, absence from work, voluntary and forced redundancy, or death. The economic impact has been estimated by the Health Economics Unit, UWI at US$20M in 1995 and is projected to reach US$80M by 2020, due to patient care and support and lack of productivity.
The countries have to spend money on treatment methods and lose money through little productivity. People suffering from HIV/AIDS are seen as the lowest in social status. They are abandoned and shunned by the society causing further depression. They are reduced to poverty and harsh living conditions, lowering the standard of living. The disease is a colossal burden upon the governments in the Caribbean, as they try to prevent the disease, rather than treating it.