Analytical chemistry

Industrial Chemists study and apply the physical and chemical properties of substances to determine their composition. They use this information to develop new substances, processes and products and to increase scientific knowledge. Industrial Chemists may perform the following tasks: * Conduct experiments to identify chemical composition and study chemical changes which occur in natural substances and processed materials * Undertake research and analysis to develop and test theories, techniques and processes * Take part in the marketing and research of process or product development.

Starting Salary * The starting salary of an analytical chemist with one to four years of experience ranges from $37,000 to $50,000 per year. According the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average starting salary of an analytical chemist is $71,070 per year, with an average hourly wage of $34. 17. Salary by Experience * Once a chemist has garnered between five and nine years of experience, salaries begin to rise. At this point, she can expect to earn about $44,000 to $61,000 per year.

After 10 or more years experience in the field, an analytical chemist can expect to earn a salary between $50,000 and $82,000 annually. Salary by Industry * If you’re a recent Ph. D. graduate looking to embark on a career in analytical chemistry with an above average salary, selecting the right industry is key. Choosing the right one could spell higher income, both short-term and over the course of a career. The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the Federal Executive Branch is the industry with the highest average salary for analytical chemists at $98,060 per year.

This industry is notably the fourth highest employer of analytical chemists. Other high paying industries include Oil and Gas Extraction, at $81,440 per year; Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing, at $80,280; Computer Systems Design and Related Services, at $80,260; and Scientific Research and Development Services, at $79,560 Analytical Chemistry Is About Obtaining Information Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter.

In other words, it is the art and science of determining what matter is and how much of it exists. Has Application in All Areas of Chemistry Analytical chemists perform qualitative and quantitative analysis; use the science of sampling, defining, isolating, concentrating, and preserving samples; set error limits; validate and verify results through calibration and standardization; perform separations based on differential chemical properties; create new ways to make measurements; interpret data in proper context; and communicate results.

They use their knowledge of chemistry, instrumentation, computers, and statistics to solve problems in almost all areas of chemistry. For example, their measurements are used to assure compliance with environmental and other regulations; to assure the safety and quality of food, pharmaceuticals, and water; to support the legal process; to help physicians diagnose disease; and to provide chemical measurements essential to trade and commerce.

Analytical chemists are employed in all aspects of chemical research in industry, academia, and government. They do basic laboratory research, develop processes and products, design instruments used in analytical analysis, teach, and work in marketing and law. Analytical chemistry is a challenging profession that makes significant contributions to many fields of science. Is Changing Analytical methods using robots and instrumentation specifically designed to prepare and analyze samples have been automated.

In addition, increasingly powerful personal computers and workstations are enabling the development and use of increasingly sophisticated techniques and methods of interpreting instrumental data.

So, in some cases, because the instrumentation does more, fewer chemists are required to prepare the sample and measure and interpret the data. On the other hand, the demand for new and increasingly sophisticated analytical techniques, new instrumentation, automation and computerization, and regulatory requirements have opened up new opportunities for analytical chemists in other areas.

For example, quality assurance specialists help validate that analytical laboratories and the chemists working there follow documented and approved procedures; new instrumentation and laboratory information management systems have opened up opportunities for chemists with solid technical and computer skills; and corporate downsizings have provided the impetus for entrepreneurial analytical chemists to start their own businesses.

Uses a Variety of Skills Regardless of the changes in the workplace, the minimum requirements for chemists seeking careers as analytical chemists include a solid background in chemistry, a propensity for detail, good computer skills, and good laboratory and problem-solving skills.

Pat Mirando, a senior analytical development chemist at Wyeth Ayerst Lederle, says, “It’s very important to have an understanding of basic chemistry because a lot of work is done on trivial things that can be quickly and easily explained by anyone with a good [chemistry] background.

” Basic skills, however, should be coupled with skills in other areas. Employers tend to recruit analytical chemists with experience operating different and increasingly sophisticated instruments that are used for routine measurements. In addition, they often seek analytical chemists with experience in specific types of analyses for example, the analysis of samples unique to pharmaceuticals, food, environmental samples, polymers, or minerals.

Although high-volume routine instrumental analyses using well-defined procedures are automated, knowledge of the organic, inorganic, and physical chemistry of the sample and the measurement is valuable, particularly when troubleshooting. Good oral and written communication skills are essential, particularly when oral presentations, reports, and memos are required to defend a measurement and its interpretation.

In addition, familiarity with the various roles analytical chemists play in different industries and exposure to business and management practices are valuable assets that will allow growth into management, manufacturing, sales, and marketing positions. Pharmacologist : Job description Pharmacologists investigate how potential medicines interact with biological systems, undertaking in vitro research (using cells or animal tissues) or in vivo research (using whole animals) to predict what effect the drug might have in humans.

Pharmacologists aim to understand how drugs work so they can be used effectively and safely. They also conduct research to aid drug discovery and development. Their work involves a high level of collaboration with other scientists. Areas of specialism include clinical pharmacology (carrying out work involving the effects of medicines on people within clinical trial studies), neuropharmacology (studying the effect of chemicals on the nervous system) and regulatory pharmacology. Closely related fields include toxicology, biochemistry and DMPK (drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics).

Typical work activities Much of the role is laboratory-based, working as part of a scientific research team, and may include the following activities: * designing, planning and conducting controlled experiments to improve understanding of a compound’s activity; * using computers, high technology measuring systems and other sophisticated equipment to collect, analyse and interpret complex data; * applying and developing the results of research to work through a variety of applications, such as new products, processes, techniques and practices; * drawing up proposals for future developmental tests;

* organising and overseeing tests of new drugs and medicines, ensuring quality control and securing approval for their use; liaising with regulatory authorities to ensure compliance with local, national and international regulations; * planning, coordinating and supervising the duties of other technical staff and training and/or mentoring early-career pharmacologists. Disseminating the results of work to others is important, as is maintaining an awareness of other pharmacological research.

This may involve: * reading specialist literature – being aware of scientific developments and how these might be applied to research; * sharing results and findings with colleagues and team members in group meetings; * producing written reports – if you work in a contract research laboratory, you will be required to submit reports to your customers in the pharmaceutical industry.

Written reports are also required to obtain approval of medicines by regulatory authorities; * writing original papers based on your findings for submission to specialist publications; * attending scientific meetings and conferences in order to present posters, give talks, and listen to presentations from fellow pharmacologists and key opinion leaders. 1. Entry Level * As of July 2009, pharmacologists with less than one year of work experience earned an average salary of between $34,392 and $81,389. One to Four Years of Experience.

* Pharmacologists with one to four years of work experience in the field earned annual salaries of between $61,829 and $98,412 as of July 2009 Five to Nine Years of Experience * The average salary range for pharmacologists with five to nine years of experience was between $61,906 and $104,806 as of July 2009. 10 to 19 Years of Experience * The income of pharmacologists with 10 to 19 years of experience in the field was between $73,000 and $130,000 as of July 2009.

Most Experienced * Once pharmacologists achieved at least 20 years of work experienc, their salary ranges increased to between $99,159 and $167,152 as of July 2009. Employer Type * As of July 2009, the highest-paying employers of pharmacologists were colleges and universities, where scientists earned maximum salaries of $150,000, while hospitals were the lowest-paying employers with maximum salaries of $100,558.

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