Pathophysiology Definitions and Key Terms Absorption – gets the drug into the bloodstream via dermal layers, mouth, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or lining of stomach. Adverse Reactions – Undesirable side effects of a drug Aerosol – Liquid, powder, or foam deposited in a thin layer of the skin by air pressure. American Hospital Formulary Service – Contains concise information that is arranged according to drug classifications. Ampule – Glass container containing a drug, the bottle must be broken at the neck to retrieve the medication.
Anaphylactic Reaction – Life threatening reaction resulting in respiratory distress, suddensevere bronchospasms and CV collapse. Antagonist – Drug that prevents receptor stimulation. Blocks receptors and therefore blocking action of toxic drugs. Apothecary System – System for measuring drug dosages. Gradually being replaced by metric. Chemical Name – The 1st name given to any drug. Gives the exact description of the chemical structure of the drug. Compendium of Drug Therapy – Includes pictures of drugs and phone numbers of drug companies and poison control centers. Contraindications – reasons NOT to administer meds Controlled Substances Act – Regulates manufacture and distribution of drugs whose use may result in dependency.
Cumulative Effect – the effect of multiple doses of a drug interacting with each other Distribution – Moves drug from bloodstream into the tissues and fluids of the body Drug – Any substance taken into the body to affect changes to 1 or more body functions, often to prevent or treat a condition. Drug Action – Cellular changed effected by a drug Drug Allergy – occurs in a person who has been exposed to the drug and developed antibodies. Drug Effect – Degree of a drug’s physiologic change Drug Enforcement Administration – Oversees control of dangerous drugs. Enforces drug
laws. Drug Tolerance – when body becomes accustomed to a drug over a period of time. Results in decreased effect of same dosage. Drug Toxicity – results from overdosage, ingestion of a drug intended for external use or buildup of the drug in blood due to impaired metabolism. Elixir – Drug dissolved in alcohol and added flavoring. DONT USE in pts with alcoholism or diabetes. Emulsion – Drug combined with water and oi. Must be thoroughly shaken to disperse meds evenly Enteric-Coated Tablet – Drug coated to withstand stomach acidity and dissolve in the intestines. Never to be crushed or broken.
Excretion – Eliminates the waste products of drug metabolism from the body Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act – Required that the safety of a drug must be proven before it could be distributed to the public. Federal Trade Commission – Regulates drug advertising Fight or Flight – The reaction activated by the sympathetic nervous system as a response to external life threatening stimuli Fluid Extract – Alcohol solution of a drug from vegitable source. Most concentrated of all fluid preperations. Food and Drug Administration – reviews drug applications and petitions for food additives.
Inspects factories and insures labeling on cosmetics. Generic Name – Often related to the chemical name but completely independent of the manufacturer’ nonproprietary designation of the drug Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 – 1st legislation designed to s top drug addiction. Established food controls import and sale of opium. Hypersensitivity – AKA drug allergy. Body must build this response. The 1st exposure may or may not indicate that a problem is developing. Idiosycratic Reactions – Abnormal reaction to drug peculiar to a certain patient. Not technically an allergy.
Indications – reasons for the administration of drugs Inhalation – administration of drugs into the lungs via water vapor, gases or drug inspiration Intramuscular – administration of drugs via injection into muscle Intraosseous – administration of drugs directly into the bone. OUCH. Intravenous – administration of drugs via injection directly into veins Liniment – Any oily liquid used on skin Local Effect – limited to the area where it is administered Metabolism – Physical and chemical alterations t hat the drug undergoes within the body Metric System – based on multiples of 10, used to measure dosages.
Always in decimals; never in fractions Narcotic Control Act – Passed to ammend Harrison act and increase penalties for violation. Made possession of heroin and pot illegal. Official Name – The name under which a drug is listed in one of the official publications. Parasympathetic Division – also called cholinergic, originates in brain and sends messages to affect organs by the cranial nerves Parenteral Drugs – Liquid drugs administered into the body by subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous routes.
Pharmacokinetics – Movement of drugs through the body including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Pharmacology – The study of drugs and their effects and actions on the body Physicians’ Desk Reference – Annually released reference for all drugs in current use Potentiation – One drug prolongs or multiplies the effect of another drug Prefilled Syringe – Syrings and drug solution packaged together. to be used to deliver a single dose of a drug. Public Health Service – Inspects and licenses establishments that manufacture drugs Pure Food and Drug Act – Passed in 1906 and ammended in 1938. Original act to prevent trafficking of harmful food and drugs.
Side Effect – any drug effect that is unintended Subcutaneous – Administration of drugs injected into fatty layer of tissue below the skin Sublingual – Administration of drugs by placing it under the tongue to be dissolved into the saliva. MUST not be swallowed. Suppository – Drug mixed in a firm base that dissolves gradually at body temperature. Shaped for insertion into the business end. Suspension – Finely ground drugs dissolved in a liquid. Must be shaken before administration. Sympathetic Division – AKA adreg Synergism – Two drugs working together that enhance the desired effect.
Systemic Effect – Pertaining to the whole body rather than to one of its parts Therapeutic Effect – Drug’s desired effect and the reason it is prescribed. Trade Name – The name registered by the patent office for a given drug. Manufacturer for 17 years has exclusive rights of production. Transdermal – drug delivered by absorption through the skin via patch United States Pharmacopeia – Consists of 2 paperback volumes of drug information for the healthcare provider. Provides directions for compounding. Vials – Glass or plastic containers that have a self-sealing rubber stopper from which multiple.