An investigation into Examining the effects and results of concentrating on one particular component of physical fitness Introduction I play football regularly during the football season for both a boy’s football team and the school football team. The position I play when playing football is right wing. When playing right wing, stamina is vital for performance and the amount of time you can perform for. Stamina (cardio respiratory endurance) is where the heart and lungs are able to cope with activity for long periods of time.
We need stamina to get rid of waste products and in order to get oxygen. Throughout a football match, I have to constantly run up and down the pitch to defend and attack without resting much. This is very tiring and at the moment I am finding myself being very tired at half time. It is very important for me to improve my stamina so I can perform longer and therefore improve my performance and hopefully improve the performance of the team. To train for stamina, you should work continuously at 60-80% of our maximum heart rate.
The types of training which can be done to improve stain are circuit training which will help improve muscular endurance, continuous training which helps improve endurance and stamina, interval training as it can help train aerobically and weight training which can improve muscular endurance. There are many tests that can be done for stamina; these include the bleep test, the 12-minute cooper run and the Harvard step test however there are many possible activities that can be done in order to test your stamina. When training you should look at the five principles of sport, specificity, progression, overload, reversibility and tedium.
Specificity is training for a specific activity so for my training programme I will be looking to train to increase my stamina in a football match and nothing else. Progression is training harder to create an overload, therefore in my training programme I will increase the work I put into training otherwise I will not improve. Overload is making the bodywork harder than usual by training harder. In my training programme this would mean training for longer time or distance. Reversibility is when the effects of training are reversed quickly if training is abandoned.
For instance if I stop training, my stamina levels will drop. Tedium is where you find the training boring therefore you do not perform to your best therefore you should make the training more interesting in order for you to work to your full ability. For this reason I should try to vary the type of training, the surroundings and times in which I do the training. It is also important that I am able to motivate myself to do my training programme if I do not want to do it, then I will either not do it and the effects of training will be reversed or I will not perform to my full potential.
The main types of training to look at when training to improve fitness are interval training and continuous training. Interval training is where you alternate between strenuous exercise and rest. The rest period gives us time to recover. Interval training can be used to develop both anaerobic and aerobic fitness, depending on how we organise our training so for my training programme I would use interval training to develop my aerobic fitness. Continuous training is where we exercise without rest intervals. There are two types long, slow distance training and high intensity continuous training.
It would not be good for me to do high intensity continuous training as fatigue is high and injury is always possible. The principles of fitness programmes are frequency, intensity, time and type. Frequency is the number of times you train, it is good to train at least 3 times a week but you must make sure the sessions are spaced out in order to give the body rest. Intensity is how hard you work. You should work hard enough for the body systems to adapt otherwise your fitness will not improve. Time is the amount of time each session lasts for. To improve aerobic fitness (stamina) you should gradually increase the time each session lasts for.
Type is the type of training you do. You must include activities, which develop fitness and the skills we need for our sport. Plan Before I train every day I must warm up properly, this will include light jogging, which will gradually increase heart rate, breathing and blood flow to our muscles and also prepares us for our hard work to follow. I will need to do gentle stretching and it is important, when stretching to specifically concentrate areas of the body that are most likely to be stressed during the training. It is also important that before doing every bit of training I check that all the equipment etc.
is safe to use. This includes tying up laces on footwear, making sure machines are safe to use and when swimming, making sure the water is safe and that there is nobody in the way. I will not eat at least an hour before training as this can make me feel sick. Like the warm up I will also need to cool down after my training. This includes light exercise which will help to remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products which have built up in our bodies. When planning my training programme I must concentrate on all of the above points.
I have specified what I need to improve and what training needs to be done in order to improve it. When planning my programme I must take into account that for 3 weeks during my training programme I will be abroad therefore I will have to do training sessions with the equipment that will be available. However this is easy as there will be swimming pools available for use and swimming long distances is a good way of training to improve stamina. Maybe during one of these weeks I could do a rest period so I can see if there is a reversibility, which will make my performance, deteriorate.
The test I will be doing at the end of each week will be the 12-minute Cooper run. This is where you run as fast as you can for 12 minutes and measure the distance you managed to run in the 12 minutes. Sometimes it may be hard to measure the exact distance therefore the results may not be as accurate as I would like them to be however I feel this is the most appropriate test to use. Before I begin my training programme I will need to do a 12-minute Cooper run so I can see if I have improved my fitness stamina at the end of the training programme.